Friday, November 29, 2019
Slaver Peparations Are Wrong Slavery Reparations Are Wrong Ladies and gentlemen; I don't believe that anyone in this chamber would move to disagree with the idea that slavery was an atrocity, committed from the depths of the darkest parts of the human sole. Africans were seized from their native land, and sold into lives of servitude into a foreign land. Indeed, it was a tragedy on such a scale that cannot be measured nor quantified. And it is this very notion of unquantifiable tragedy which speaks to the matter of reparations for slavery. To be quite blunt, reparations, even if they may be deserved, are not feasible under any system or economic tangent - indeed such an undertaking would only not remedy the situation, but it would sink Africa and her people deeper into the cycle of poverty and oppression that they have so struggled to free themselves. While the arguments against reparations may seem shallow or self-serving to advocates of such a system, upon examination, the logistics of what to give, and whom to distribute it to, preclude any potential benefits of such a system of indemnity and requite. The point of the follow critique is not to say that Africans were not mistreated, nor that they are not worthy of reparations, but that perhaps reparations are not an adequate solution to this situation, and indeed will only serve to worsen. Africa is a continent in dire straits. European colonization and colonialism damaged the native structure and society - some might say that this simply proves that European man caused, and ought to pay for, the damages done to Africa and her people. However, I would argue that simply placing a 'band-aid' blanket over Africa, would serve only to mask their problems, and relieve us of our guilt. It was this same attitude that the early European missionaries took with Africa - that they are not capable of dealing with their own problems and situations. Authors suggest that reparations should take the form of capital transfers and African status in the International Monetary Fund (Mazuri, 22). Does this sound like mending the deep running wounds and damage done to Africa, or like a transfer of monetary funds in order to fix Africa? Indeed, this idea of presenting money to Africa in order to apologize for what we have done is nothing more than a quick fix solution - it is not a long-term remedy for the underlying structural damage. The very center of Africa has been changed, for better or for worse. Surface solutions, while some may claim they are a good beginning or perhaps just a token of our apologetic state, will only further social damage and entrench abusive African regimes. A cognate situation with African Americans is with that of Afrocentric history (Asante, 174); many suggest that perhaps we ought to provide black student with their own curriculum, such as to instill in them a sense of pride that will improve their education. The U.S. News and World Report comments: The Afrocentric curriculum is usually presented as an attempt to develop pride in black children by giving them a racial history But what kind of pride and self-esteem is likely to grow from false history? And how much more cynical will black children be if they discover that they have been conned once again, only this time by Afrocentrists? It is a sure-fire formula for separatism and endless racial animosity (Leo, 26) This author suggests that indeed, conferring upon youths of African descent their own different history will not only further the racial segregation, but also provide them with a false sense of history, fueling the animosity. If the rest of the world were to suddenly step down and bestow upon Africa special privileges and grants, it would only create a sense among the global village that Africans are 'different' and require some sort of special assistance in order to succeed. This type of compensatory system would not only be insufficient to ever repay blacks for the injustice to them, but also further the rigid separatism that plagues African Americans today - what they need is equality, not special programs catered to what guilty-feeling Europeans feel they owe them. Aside
Monday, November 25, 2019
Darwinius - Facts and Figures Name: Darwinius (after naturalist Charles Darwin); pronounced dar-WIN-ee-us Habitat: Woodlands of western Europe Historical Epoch: Middle Eocene (47 million years ago) Size and Weight: About two feet long and 5 pounds Diet: Probably omnivorous Distinguishing Characteristics: Small size; primate-like anatomy About Darwinius To many paleontologists, Darwinius is a case study in how scientific discoveries should not be communicated to the general public. Although the well-preserved fossil of this prehistoric primate was unearthed way back in 1983, it wasnt until recently that an enterprising team of researchers got around to examining it in detail. Rather than share their findings with other paleontologists, the team started a bidding war for book and TV coverage, so that Darwinius was announced all at once to the world in 2009most notably in an extensively hyped documentary on the History Channel. The premise of all the publicity: Darwinius lay at the root of human evolution, and was thus our oldest direct ancestor. As you might expect, there was an immediate backlash from the scientific community. Some experts maintained that Darwinius wasnt all it was cracked up to be, especially since it was closely related to another well-known early primate, Notharctus. Most at issue was the TV documentarys breathless use of the phrase missing link, implying that Darwinius somehow led directly to modern humans (to most of the lay public, the phrase missing link in the context of human evolution implies a simian ancestor that lived at most a couple of million years ago, not nearly 50!) Where do matters stand now? Well, the scientific community is still examining the fossil evidenceas should have happened before the announcement of Darwinius, not after.
Friday, November 22, 2019
WHAT''S IN IT FOR ME - Essay Example Therefore, the necessary measure must be deployed such as setting good standard of behaviors in the workplace the managerial should ensure that cases of maltreatment are dealt with swiftly and seriously. The intimidation befallen on me when I was exactly 21 years old and I felt delighted to be employed for my first job. I have been working hard, and this probably must have led for promotion from a minor accountant to major accountant. However, my hard work was only appreciated by senior staff but my fellow colleagues used as a chase of insulting me they could pass in-front of my office altering disguising word such as Ã¢â¬Å"idiotÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦ bustardÃ¢â¬ this hounded me so much and turned my proudness of been employed into trouble. I must sincerely confess that this contributed loss of my morale and self-esteem I once possessed towards my job. In overcoming my current challenge, I reported to the general manager who decided to help me get the transfer to another branch of the same organization. Optimism among workers is an essential thing that cannot be ignore by any corporation that has the aspiration to prosper in making its employees happier, and help them receive imperative social support. The executive, therefore, have to strive in making sure that they develop unique tactic that will help them make difficult people work with optimism (Voltaire & Adams, 1966). Some of this tactic includes: value them, respect them, try and listen to their opinion of how the workplace should look like, mandate them with responsibility of leadership for this may help them change (Hagner, 1989). Example of resiliency that could be applied in enhancing effective ways of working with a difficult person and help those individual to adapt stress, adversity and threat are: treasure social support and interaction in workplace, the manager should nature optimistic view over the employees. Difficult person are not only the subordinate staff, but it can also be reflected even to the
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
Ethical Issues During Louis XIV Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words
Ethical Issues During Louis XIV - Research Paper Example Spitting or scratching oneself at a table especially during meals is strongly discouraged but if at all one has to then he or she should do it politely and unnoticed. The above-mentioned laws are not immutable, they can be changed. For example in ancient times one could yawn, provided he or she did not speak in the process but nowadays it could be shocking to a person of rank. Spitting frequently is very much disagreeable but when there is need one should conceal it as much. When one spits he has to cover the saliva with the foot. When in the house a handkerchief should be used instead while turning aside. Care should be taken especially when spitting so as not to spit on one's clothes or those of others (Corey 78). One should not only spit in a handkerchief while in the house but also when in church and in places where cleanliness reigns. It is an inexcusable habit for children to spit in their playmatesÃ¢â¬â¢ faces. Too it is a bad habit to spit out of windows, on furniture and o n walls. A series of quotations on spitting clearly shows that there has been a change in behavior towards a particular direction since the Middle Ages. Frequent spitting is still being viewed as unpleasant behavior and lack of Ã¢â¬Å"cleanlinessÃ¢â¬ unlike it was seen almost four centuries ago. This clearly demonstrates how the civilization process has taken place (Hernandez 89). Taboos and restrictions of different kinds view ejection of saliva not as any other natural process but as a Ã¢â¬Å"primitiveÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"uncivilizedÃ¢â¬ . The distinguishing fact between the former and the latter is that the former views this as an external constraint while the latter sees it as an internal constraint (Lama 89). Elias asserts that even Louis xiv, who mostly is seen as the supreme among the omnipotent absolute monarch, proofs when scrutinized as a person whose rank as a king was in a certain network of interdependencies (Barrat 101). He preserved his power by a carefully calcula ted strategy which was under a peculiar structure of court society and by the society at large. Elias understood Louis xiv in the sense of light-recentre-thinking on the nature and structure of the French absolute monarchy. The personal rule of Louis xiv started in 1661, a time of great weakness when all the opposition was crushed. Louis xiv seemed to use the old Roman adage as the simplest strategy for his rule but he did not. From the experienced of the Fronde, the king knew that his ruler was under pressure of threats from below. Barrat asserts that to maintain his rule and avoid the unification of the court society against him, Louis had to exert more pressure (100). His genius, from Elias, was that he rose to perfection as a result of the careful assessment of the relationship of power at the court and the balancing of tension that was within it. He, therefore, succeeded by creating organizations which not only maintained the tension and the differences but also facilitated sup ervision. Louis xiv calculated strategy was implemented during his close to fifty-five years of personal reign. During the period he succeeded in maintaining his rank as a king and instilling the need for it in the French nobility. The king had to use all means at his disposal to maintain and enhance his power. The court and the etiquette as understood by the king were the most important instruments for his reign and power distribution.
Monday, November 18, 2019
Reading Response - Article Example For instance, in order to write a word that connote a plural of two in Arabic, individuals are supposed to add Ã¢â¬ËeenÃ¢â¬â¢ in that word. Look at this example, the word quiz in English it is going to be Ã¢â¬Å"quizeenÃ¢â¬ and an Ã¢â¬ËatÃ¢â¬â¢ is added to Ã¢â¬ËquizÃ¢â¬â¢ to make it Ã¢â¬ËquizatÃ¢â¬â¢ when there are more than two quizzes. This became a common trend and words like friendeen-friendat, teachereen-teacherat, sistreen-sistrat, and classeen-classat were commonly in use by both instructors and students. WhatÃ¢â¬â¢s more, the author is supporting SmithÃ¢â¬â¢s (1976, pg. 12) argument which state Ã¢â¬Ëany international language must serve both the local and the international needs by developing alongside other languagesÃ¢â¬â¢. Subsequently, the author fails to elucidate to us the effects this assumption will have in causing more complications in the communication process between the natives and non-natives. Conversely, it is significant to note that English as one of the international languages is losing its monopoly to control the world socio-economic due to the emergence of the new translation technology. The emergence of new translation technology has risen concerned on how long English language, will continue to dominate the other local and international languages. Therefore, can we conclude that the emergence of the new translation technology will affect English as one of the predominant international languages? Additionally, Quirk et al (972 pg. 28) argued that for English language to serve the appropriate purpose of pedagogical, the instructors and academic administrators must get seriously involved in the exploration for appropriate policies that will determine the standardization. Global teaching of English language should be integrated. Besides this, individuals like Kachru (1997, pg. 10) argued that the spread of English in both inner circle, outer cycle, and expanding circle has led to development of many
Saturday, November 16, 2019
Foraging Strategies of the Common Day Critter Mark FreyFebruary 16, 2014 The foraging strategies of the common day critter Abstract: The reason for this lab is to comprehend foraging creatures methods and strategies. We will test the strategies and methods by imitating both biotic and abiotic deterrents. The material and routines were utilized as a part of request to develop a zone to imitate a foraging range. I utilized a 10m x 10m zone cornered off by tape and called it the foraging zone. 3m far from that zone were marked as a protected zone for the foragers to hold their chips throughout each trail. The calories gathered the foragerÃ¢â¬â¢s marked plastic chips with numbers on the front and backs keeping in mind the end goal to demonstrate the measure of calories. For the outcomes I took the effects from the trials and utilized them to get the chi-squared value and attempted to demonstrate or discredit the null hypothesis. After the gathering of results and putting them into tables on excel; I found the calories per chip and the calories per forager. I then made two graphs to better display the numbers per tri al. The effects were fruitful in demonstrating our hypothesis. The numbers indicated that biotic and abiotic variables intensely influence gathering proficiency. The information could be identified with numerous creatures that search for survival. Introduction: All creatures need to look for food sooner or later to survive. This methodology can get to be extremely entangled because of numerous distinctive variables. While carrying limit, foraging distance and predation assume an enormous part in foraging proficiency; climate and experience or learning assumes a drastically overwhelming part on foragers. As the temperature falls the battle to survive becomes worse, however Foragers with broad information know how to battle climate and different obstructions. For instance, the different searching tactics of passerine birds foraging among the foliage of a northern hardwoods forest result in the capture of different kinds of prey. Five major searching modes are employed by the 11 foliage-foraging bird species. (Robinson and Holmes 1982) This unmistakably shows experience assuming a big time part in genuine foraging circumstances. In the lab we test trails mimicking the battles of commonplace foraging. It will uncover distinctive sorts of situat ions and the capacity to search for food successfully is corresponded specifically. Methods: A 10 m x10m square zone was made as the foraging zone and cornered off by tape on each of the four sides. This territory is utilized to give the foragers the results. A sheltered range is likewise built in the area of 3m far from the foraging territory, giving the foragers shelter. This region was utilized as a place of refuge throughout the trail periods. Plastic poker chips represented the food in this experiment. Three sorts of chips were utilized as a part of the test; they were blue, white, and red. Each of the chips was stamped with calories content on each side. Throughout each trail I included the totaled numbers of calories on each side of the chip and noted them. Before every trial started the chips were randomly disperse onto the foraging region before testing. Every trial was set up for diverse test conditions, which was dependent upon rivalry, no predators, and minimal handling time. Trail one started with a singular forager leaving the place of refuge and gathering two chips at once. The forager wasnt permitted to convey an unfathomable amount chips. This trial included no rivalry, predators, and minimal handling time for the forager. The forager is timed by 1 minute for each gathering trip. After each trail we count each color separately with the calories content on both sides. Trail 2 conditions were the same as trail 1 with predators being the expansion to the set. The predators partition in this trial included alternate people tossing balls at the forager as they attempted to gather the chips. Foragers were allowed to convey any amount of chips they saw fit throughout the trial as possible. However they needed to hold up 10 seconds in the safe area if the predators hit them. Trail 3 was intended to reproduce cruel winter conditions for foragers. They were given no rivalry, predators, and expanded taking care of time. Gloves were utilized within this trail to depict pitiless winter conditions. This restricted me to one chip throughout each trek. In this trial I was restricted to gathering chips in a 30 second interim. Trail 4 had exploitative rivalry, no predators, and no minimal handling time. All the people in the trail were going up against one another. Gathering one chip at a time throughout the trials minute time limit. After the time is finished you need to count the sum of the information in the same estate as in the recent trials. Trail 5 has a contest rivalry, no predators, and no minimal handling time. The greater part of the foragers in this trial will be contending with one another in the minute time limit. We were permitted to gather one chip at a time, but to lift it up you needed to contend in a rock, paper, and scissors challenge to get the chip. Much the same as trail 1 the foragers are subjected to the minute time limit and every forager had their place of refuge. Trail 6 sole object was to discover the impacts of dangerous searching. With conditions dependent upon no competition, minimal handling time, and high scavenger possibility; there was no confinement to the amount of chips you can convey immediately. I had the chance to carry the chips to my sheltered range or gather as numerous chips in the minute interim. An alternate forager a die 30 seconds before the time was up and took the amount of chips that was rolled every five seconds. Trial 7 was the last trail and then we knew the distinction in the chips. Conditions like no rivalry, no predators, and no minimal handling time were an advantage. I was permitted to convey 2 chips to my protected zone, in a minute time limit. My null hypothesis was that the foragers productivity wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t influenced by biotic or abiotic elements. However the theory wasnt true after the information was gathered for the trial. After the information was put into statistical results the critical value was only greater then the chi squared value twice. Therefor the null hypothesis was rejected 5 times out of 7, ensuing in another theory. Foraging proficiency is influenced by biotic and abiotic components. Results: The data from the experiments demonstrate that the type of environment and type of outside factors heavily influence the forager. In the trials inclement weather and predators determined what type of chips the forager would get and how many calories a forager would get per trip. In table 1 the values for each trials chi-squared are compared to the degrees of freedom and determined if the null hypothesis is rejected or accepted. To get the chi-squared value the observed value of chips taken in the experiment is multiplied by either .25 or .50 depending on the chip color to find the expected value. The formula observed- expected squared divided by the expected is used to find the values of the white, red and blue chips. These numbers are then summed together to find if the value of the observed rejects or accepts the null hypothesis; seven trials were ran in this experiment only two of the trials accepted the null hypothesis. (Table 1 Chi^2) In table 2 the values that are used for the graph are the number of calories per chips over the seven trials. In the raw data the calories of all the white, red and blue were added up and were averaged out to get each trialÃ¢â¬â¢s average calories per chip. After gathering up all the results they were put into an ANOVA test and many other factors were found. The d.f is equal to 2, the f is equal to 3.574, and the probability of the result is .0026. (ANOVA test 2, Table 2 Calories/Chip graph) In table 3 the values that are used for the graph are the number of calories the foragers got over the seven trials. In the raw data the calories for each forager was added up and averaged for each trialÃ¢â¬â¢s calories per forager. After getting all the results of the trials it was put in an ANOVA test and three other factors were found. The d.f. is equal to 2, the f= is equal to 47.35, and the probability of the result is .001. (ANOVA test 1, Table 3 Calories/Forager graph) Discussion: In the results about what we have acquired we understand that there were exceptionally removed contrasts in each of the trials. Some were more probable and clear then others. Such as in the winter reproduction where foragers were constrained by severe climate like obstacles and the increase of foraging effectiveness from absence of predation or convey limit. In one of the trails, information of the assets that are foraged assumes a part in the trial. The information brought about an increased effectiveness and number of calories acquired. Indeed squirrels additionally react emphatically towards territories theyre acquainted with or have a more knowledge of. The squirrels selected patches yielding high rates of energy intake even though these patches were not sites of concentration of the preferred food(lewis, 1980). In trail 7, because of the information of the higher indicated chips foragers went acquire the higher chips rather than the typically ones. Foragers whether it was no hol ds barred, taking from one another or even predators take after the principles of optimal foraging were as picking up a benefit controls as the most astounding necessity. The theory of optimal foraging (Emlen, 1966; MacArthur Pianka, 1966) predicts a predator will select an item when the Ã¢â¬ËgainsÃ¢â¬â¢ from eating it exceeds the Ã¢â¬Ëcosts. (Hernadez et al, 2002) regardless, the effects were great in recreating genuine circumstances with genuine outcomes. Works Cited Dewitt et al . 2002. Coyote diets in the Chihuahuan Desert. Journal of Arid Environments 51: 613Ã¢â¬â624. Lewis R.. 1980. Patch Use By Gray Squirrels. The Ecological Society of America 61 1371-1379. Robinson K., Holmes T.. 1982. Foraging Behavior Of Forest Birds. Ecological Society of America. Table 2 Table 3
Wednesday, November 13, 2019
Humans have evolved to live a social life in groups. By arranging social life in different ways, cultures affect psychological processes. -Shinobu Kitayama, Japanese psychologist of Kyoto University Society can be divided into two social factions: collectivists and individualists. And within these large divisions are smaller groupings reflecting the whole, such that the Greek systems fraternities and sororities are collectivists and those uninterested, non- members are individualists. The division is not explicit, but rather a continuum of varying degrees of collectivisict and individualistic tendencies (11). A broad definition of collectivism is the tendency to identify self with an in- group, or chosen group of people with common values and beliefs (11). These close and personal relationships allow collectivists to identify better with others self concepts, rather than their own, which corresponds to the tendency to act in ways in which it is personally disadvantageous, but advanta geous to the group (5) Individualism is the tendency to identify self without regard for others perspective of themselves, but rather seeking our unique selves (11). Individualist behavior has a tendency to surround enhancing their unique self and behaving in ways that are advantageous to the self (11). Collectivist and Individualist factions are actually cultures, with their own set of values and beliefs that guide each groups behavior. Humans sense of self is derived from existing social relationships, such that self is influenced by culture and behavior is one of the ways it is manifested in peoples lives (7). To understand where behavior comes from- to understand why people behave the way they do- means learning about values and beliefs (10). The concept of personal identity differs greatly from culture to culture; from Greek organization to Greek organization there are different sets of values and beliefs accentuated (10). Eight main purposes of sororities and fraternities are as follows: sharing relationships, loyalty to the Alma Mater, provide social activities, provide service projects, intellectual vitality, an outlet for inter- college associations and friendships, guidance for moral and ethical growth, and to provide opportunities for leadership (2). Each fraternity or so rority decides how much emphasis to place on each pursuit, which identifies different cultures within a culture, the collectivists faction. An overall goal/theme of organizations within the Greek system revolve around the notion of learning and understanding how other peoples minds work (2). This exemplifies a collectivist tendency to understand others self better than ones own self (14).
Monday, November 11, 2019
Ben Bernanke is current Chairmen of US Federal Reserve and his task is to ensure appropriate monetary policy in order to improve countryÃ¢â¬â¢s economic and financial performance. Bernanke argues he has to work closely with all members of the Committee because it is the only way to develop monetary policy in such a way that it would fit countryÃ¢â¬â¢s needs and demands. Therefore, the paper discusses issues of monetary policy offered by Bernanke as well as examines influence of globalization on overall monetary policy of the country. Actually, Bernanke is interested whether ongoing economic globalization and integration affects US monetary policy. Monetary policy operates in financial and economic environment being strongly affected by integration. Bernanke notes that monetary policy instead of stabilizing economic and financial situation in the country does little to drive powerful economic forces and to cause structural changes necessary for policy. Bernanke claims that if Federal Reserve wants to develop effective monetary policy, it should, firstly, be fully aware of all factors which are able to affect and determine the overall economic growth, inflation and employments rates in the United States. Chairman asserts that countryÃ¢â¬â¢s economy should be open to other countries because openness plays crucial role in monetary policy affecting price stability and sustainable employment within country. Furthermore, economic openness also assists Federal Reserve in meeting congressional mandate. Bernanke cites analysts who argue that globalization puts obstacles to US monetary policy because it aims at reducing US interest rates of Federal Reserve and asset price. Also globalization diminishes the role of domestic factors affecting inflation process. Nevertheless, Bernanke doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t support such idea claiming that he is sure globalization should be implicated to increase effectiveness of monetary policy. Globalization and Monetary Institute was established to study impact of globalization no economy and policy of the country. Bernanke argues that monetary policy affects above all countryÃ¢â¬â¢s financial conditions and asset prices and interest rates are under attack. Consequently, changes taken place in financial conditions would affect many households and firms, as well as would affect production, consumption and investment opportunities. Thus, Bernanke states that Ã¢â¬Å"the financial environment in which U.S. monetary policy is made has been irrevocably changed by the remarkable increases in the magnitudes of financial flows into and out of the United StatesÃ¢â¬ . (Bernanke 2007) Therefore, he argues that he Federal Reserve should pay more attention to financial stability by controlling federal funds and interest rates. Banks loans should be carefully considered as well. He recommends using open-market operations because due to policy of openness the Federal Reserve would be able to manage constant supply of funds, inter-bank markets. Such policy will keep federal funds close to the targeted rates and international integration of financial markets will not be affected or prevented. Further, Bernanke admits that the Federal Reserve should take proper control over the federal funds rates because they strongly affect short-term dollar nominal interest rates. Bernanke promotes cooperation of the Federal Reserve with modern central banks because it gives excellent opportunity to conduct monetary policy, to examine economic and financial data obtained from variety of markets, and to apply those data when considering economy and inflation. Bernanke says it is necessary to seek for alternative courses of policy to improve effectiveness of monetary policy and macroeconomic performance of the country. He recommends developing economic models to guide policymakers and forecasting techniques to ensure sustainable progress. Bernanke assumes that Ã¢â¬Å"monetary policymakers must therefore strike a difficult balance Ã¢â¬âconducting rigorous analysis informed by sound economic theory and empirical methods while keeping an open mind about the many factors, including myriad global influences, at play in a dynamic modern economy like that of the United StatesÃ¢â¬ . (Bernanke 2006) References Bernanke, Ben. (2007, March 2). Globalization and Monetary Policy. Retrieved April 19, 2007, from http://www.federalreserve.gov/boarddocs/speeches/2007/20070302/ Bernanke, Ben. (2006, February 15). Testimony of Chairmen Ben S. Bernanke. Retrieved April 19, 2007, from http://www.federalreserve.gov/boarddocs/hh/2006/february/testimony.htm Bernanke: The Yield Curve and Monetary Policy. (2006, March 20). Retrieved April 19, 2007, from http://economistsview.typepad.com/economistsview/2006/03/bernanke_the_yi.html Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã
Saturday, November 9, 2019
Introduction The internet has changed the way many things are done. The traditional methods have been scrapped and newer more efficient and effective means are constantly being offered through and on the internet. The unique ability of the internet to render geographical boundaries obsolete allows anyone to access an almost infinite pool of information and to also share that information without regulation or control (Kalir 2002). The speed with which this information and exchange of ideas is facilitated by the internet makes it a potent medium for democratic plans. Given these benefits and advances that the internet has offered, it comes as no surprise then that the internet has also allowed democratic boundaries to improve by allowing for better communication and exchange of ideas. This discourse on the effect of the internet on improving the democratic boundaries will therefore attempt to show that the ability of the internet to bypass traditional boundaries and barriers to a free exchange of ideas and information has improved democratic boundaries despite the attempts of government to restrain or control this medium. Bypassing Traditional Boundaries As mentioned previously, the internet allows any person to access information from any place and also access any information available online. The ability of this medium to encourage the free exchange of ideas between people of any race or culture makes it easier to cross and overcome whatever boundaries may have been set in place traditionally (Lessig 2000). Ã¢â¬Å"Digital DemocracyÃ¢â¬ which is the Ã¢â¬Å"use of digital communication technologies to enhance the democratic process by, among other things, making the process more accessible, increasing and enhancing citizen participation in public policy decision making, and increasing government transparency and accountabilityÃ¢â¬ plays a vital role in bypassing these traditional boundaries and improving the existing democratic boundaries by inviting democratic participation (Lim 2006). One of the reasons why the internet has been so successful at bypassing and improving these barriers is because of the fact that through the internet, Ã¢â¬Å"convergenceÃ¢â¬ is achieved at a relatively low cost (Mitchell 2002). This means that people from all walks of life are not necessarily constrained by finances and such as to hamper or inhibit them from participating in the democratic process or in digital democracy. This in effects allows for a more mixed lot of participants and allows for a richer exchange of ideas and a greater participation from a wider demographic base (Lim 2006). Put simply, the relatively low cost of access to the internet at the present allows for more people to participate and also increases the amount of information available that is vital to the success of Ã¢â¬Å"digital democracy:Ã¢â¬ The greater scope for freedom, autonomy, creativity, and collaboration that the internet provides makes it a successful tool in bypassing the traditional boundaries and constraints that have prevented people in participating in the democratic process and thus by providing for such the existing democratic barriers are improved. Free Exchange of Ideas and Information Governments realized that as the internet was maturing there would be a need to control and regulate access to the internet as well as to control the content of the information on the internet (Simon 2001). Most of the regulations however have proven to be ineffective as more and more people were able to find means to bypass them (see bypassing traditional boundaries) and thus led to the formation of Ã¢â¬Å"social movementsÃ¢â¬ on the internet which is a key to the improvement of democratic boundaries (Lim 2006). Social movements are broad social alliances of people who are connected through a shared interest in blocking or promoting social change (Trippi 2004). On the internet, with the amount of information available and the number of people participating, it is but a natural result that people who share similar beliefs form their own Ã¢â¬Å"societiesÃ¢â¬ or those who do not have any firm beliefs are able to find something which they do subscribe to. According to Lim, Ã¢â¬Å"The ability of the internet to provide many people access to forums for deliberation on a range of public issues and the involvement of decision-makers in online forums assure participants that their voices will be heard. Their efforts contribute to building a new public sphere where rationality rules, citizen voices are heard, and public officials heed the demos. (Lim 2006)Ã¢â¬ By allowing more people to participate and exchange ideas freely, support for proper movements to improve the democratic situation of any state, can quickly be generated thus ensuring the success of the democratic process. Yet as pointed out by one writer, the limitations of such actions are still determined by the effective sphere of influence and control of the government over the geographical and political terrain (Barlow 2001). Improving Democratic Boundaries As shown by the arguments above, the internet indeed improves democratic boundaries and presents the opportunity to eventually create a world democracy. The boundaries that have traditionally existed to bar or hinder any interaction between peoples has been bypassed by the internet and thus allowing more people to interact with each other and to mobilize despite the geographical distances of each other. The convergence that this allows makes the generation of any support necessary to improve the democratic process easier and also allows for access to a larger support base. Another factor which has led to the success of the internet in improving democratic boundaries is the fact that it allows for faster and more exchange of information. This then allows more people to interact with each other and also form Ã¢â¬Å"social movementsÃ¢â¬ . These social movements allow people to voice out their ideas collectively and thus improving the chances that their rights are not suppressed and that their voices are heard. The future of democracy on the internet is bright indeed. With the number of people and countries that have access to internet increasing, it is guaranteed that the democratic process will survive despite attempts of certain governments (China) at regulating this medium (Longworth 2001). Still, time and again, it has been shown that whatever controls and regulations governments attempt to set in place have always been bypassed thus ensuring that the future for democracy lies in the internet, in cyberspace. References: Barlow, J. (1996). A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace. Retrieved November 2, 2006, from http://www. eff. org/~barlow/Declaration-Final. html. Davis, S. , Elin, B. and Reeher, G. (2002). Click on Democracy: The InternetÃ¢â¬â¢s Power to Change Political Apathy into Civic Action. Boulder CO: Westview Press. Kalir, E. and Maxwell, E. (2002). Rethinking Boundaries in Cyberspace. The Aspen Institute: Communications and Society Program. Lessig, L. (2000). Ã¢â¬Å"Innovation, Regulation, and the Internet. Ã¢â¬ American Prospect 11, no. 10. Retrieved November 2, 2006, from http://www. prospect. org/print/V11/10/lessig-l. html Lim, M. and Kann, M. (2006). Democratic Deliberation and Mobilization on the Internet. Annenberg Center for Communication University of Southern California. Longworth, R. (2001). Ã¢â¬Å"Government Without Democracy. Ã¢â¬ American Prospect 12, no. 12. Retrieved November 1, 2006, from http://www. prospect. org/print/V12/12/longworth-r. html. Mitchell, W. (1995). City of Bits: Place, Space, and the Infobahn. Retrieved November 2, 2006, from http://cyber. law. harvard. edu/people/reagle/inet-quotations-19990709. html. Simon, L. (2001). Democracy and the Internet: Allies or Adversaries? Woodrow Wilson Center Press. Trippi, J. (2004). The Revolution Will Not Be Televised: Democracy, the Internet, and the Overthrow of Everything. Regan Books. Ã¢â¬Å"Political Influentials Online in the 2004 Presidential Campaign. Ã¢â¬ (February 5, 2004). Institute for Politics, Democracy and the Internet, Graduate School of Political Management, George Washington University.
Wednesday, November 6, 2019
Factory Hours for children Essay Example Factory Hours for children Essay Factory Hours for children Essay During the 18th century the government was interested in defending the country. On account of this they collected taxes and in law and order. They did not think it was their place to interfere in other peoples lives. The government thought that it was none of their business to say how many hours people worked it did not occur to them that it was a problem. Before mills were built people worked at home so their working hours and conditions were unknown because they were somewhat isolated. When the Mills were built the owners main concern was to make money and most of the time, little attention was paid to the conditions or hours of the workers. Mills were crowded and soon the bad conditions became obvious. Conditions were varied not all mill owners were cruel and heartless, but by the 1830s it became clear that something had to be done to regulate the conditions in the mills and textile trade. Some employers felt it was their religious duty to take care of their workers. Robert Peel was one of those men and he employed most of Bury which included 1000 children. Peel was so shocked by the maltreatment of apprentices in other mills that he worked to get the 1802 Health and Morals of the Apprentices Act passed. Many reformers were not trying to stop the employment of children but just the excessive hours and poor treatment of them. Robert Peel was also interested in improving their behaviour and morality. Samuel Greg agreed with this bill. His apprentices were already on a twelve hour day and he has made provision for their health and morality. When the Apprentice House was set up in 1790, all his apprentices had schooling and they all went to church on Sundays. : A pressure campaign was spearheaded outside Parliament by Richard Oastler. Oastler wanted to acquire a ten hour day for workers. He started with children because they were easier to get support for and he hoped that then other workers hours would have to be shortened to match. Children were the biggest employers in the textile mills. If there was change in the cotton industry it would mean change in other industries. Inside Parliament the campaign was led by mill owner Michael Sadler and then by Lord Ashley, later the Earl of Shaftesbury. They were all worried about the excessive hours and the lack of protection given to them by the law. They perceived this to be the lack of morality among the child workers. They thought it was their religious duty to do improve all this.Ã 1832 The House of Commons set up a committee to enquire into the case for a shorter working week.Ã 1833 The dreadful conditions in factories were highlighted in a published report but some M.P.s said it was biased in favour of workers because no mill owners had been called to give evidence. A new Royal Commission was set up so both points of view could be heard. It was reported that two months later enough evidence had been gathered about the damage done to children and young people by the long working hours and harsh conditions. Parliament accepted something had to be done.Ã In the 1833 Factory Act, factories laid down hours of work for young people. Children under nine years of ages could not work. Children aged between nine or twelve could work only eight hours a day. Thirteen to eighteen year olds could work for no more than twelve hours a day. Working children had to have two hours of schooling a day. This was one of the many reasons why civil registration of births and deaths began in 1837. Mill owners could keep their factories open for the same number of hours, and women still had to work for as long as before and sometimes even longer. The 1844 Factory Act applied to textile mills. It started that women were not to work for more than 12 hours a day. To do this, factory owners had to be made a concession, the age at which children could be employed was lowered from nine to eight. But, these children were only allowed to work for six and a half hours a day instead on nine. Three hours of schooling a day was still compulsory. Mill owners could still organise shifts of child workers but because women were not allowed to work for more than twelve hours a day, it was hard to keep the mills open for as long as before. The 1847 Factory Act stated that women and young people could not work for longer than ten hours a day. In some mills this meant a ten-hour day. Many mill owners claimed that they could not make a profit if their mills only worked for ten hours. By working out a shift system for the women and children and by making the men work a fifteen or sixteen hour day, they got around the act. The 1850 Factory Acts was a something of a compromise. Parliament had agreed to an act which increased the amount of time women and children had to work but reduced the hours which men worked, a ten and a half hour day was to be worked in all mills by men, women and young people.
Monday, November 4, 2019
Book Review Bachelor - Essay Example Thus, Crossing the Border is generally acknowledged by scholars as a fundamental book that chronicles the history of Buxton, one of the most successful all-black settlements in nineteenth-century Canada. In her work, Sharon A. Roger Hepburn traces the evolution of educational institutions, businesses, and political structures in Buxton in the mid-1800s and the focus of the author is on the degree to which black settlers achieved autonomy and the control over their lives in a hostile white environment. The author undertakes an important study of Buxton, Ontario, through a comprehensive study of the manuscripts, newspapers, census records, deeds, maps, and other materials and she is effective in recreating a detailed story of the Black Canadian community through the lives of individual people. According to the author, the Black Canadian community, roughly twelve miles south Chatham, close to the shores of Lake Erie in Raleigh Township, Kent Country, espoused freedom and hope for the fu ture and accepted blacks who were single, married, and widowed; young and old; male and female; freeborn and fugitive. "This study chronicles Buxton from its conception and founding through its first decade. A group of individuals, united in their determination to build a heaven for those fleeing slavery and repressive legal statutes, formed themselves into a community that offered social and economic opportunity. Overcoming initial opposition from neighboring whites and backed by the Presbyterian Church of Canada and philanthropic Canadians of both races, Buxton grew steadily in population and stature." (Hepburn, 1) Therefore, Hepburn provides a convincing account of the Black Canadian community settlement in Buxton, Ontario, and she is effective in explaining why Buxton succeeded when other settlements failed. A careful reading of Crossing the border: A free Black community in Canada by Sharon A. Roger Hepburn confirms that the author eloquently traces the development of Buxton from its conception and founding, and her main focus is to give an explanation for its status as the 'most successful all-black community established in Canada before the U.S. Civil War.' In her attempt to establish the point that the Black Canadian community was the most successful all-black community established in Canada, the author compares this community with similar communities in Canad
Saturday, November 2, 2019
Self Identity - Essay Example It is an important aspect of the educational system to avoid breeding racial injustices into the newer generations so that a better balanced world can be expected in the near future. However, as a person steps into adolescence, one tends to become more aware about their heritage and racial background. It is essential that people are led the right way at this particular stage so that racial equality can be established. Race has been defined as Ã¢â¬Å"a sub-group of people possessing a definite combination of physical characteristics, of genetic origin, the combination of which to varying degrees distinguishes the sub-group from other sub-groups of mankindÃ¢â¬ (Casas 3). Hence any group of people that can be differentiated from another group of people on the basis of certain characteristics are said to belong to a specific race. These common characteristics are established more on a physical note than mental. Numerous materials and models are available online that help in racial identity development. The concept of self-identity is more often complicated and may include a combination of identities instead of a single identity. The self-identity generally encompasses three fields; the gender, the racial background and the sexual orientation. Biologically, I am a fit male in my early twenties. I recognize myself as an African American since I can trace back my origins to Liberia, Africa. I possess a distinctively dark skin color characteristic of African Blacks. I have lived a major part of my life in America, with my ancestral linage consisting of African Americans. Several of my distant relatives still reside in my homeland Africa. I do not feel ashamed to belong to the African American nation, and I am fully aware of my enslaved past. However, today, the scenario regarding Ã¢â¬Å"colorÃ¢â¬ discrimination is very different from what it was before the Civil War. There are three traditional models of racial/cultural identity development; (Cass, 1979), (Cross, 1971) and